Results 41 - 60 of 190.
Computer Science - Life Sciences - 01.10.2021
Deep-learning-based image analysis is now just a click away
Under an initiative by EPFL's Center for Imaging, a team of engineers from EPFL and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid have developed a plugin that makes it easier to incorporate artificial intelligence into image analysis for life-science research. The plugin, called deepImageJ, is described in a paper appearing today.
Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 01.10.2021
A tool to interrogate a new class of drugs
Reactive electrophilic drugs like Tecfidera, approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, show a lot of potential but are also mystery. Their effects are notoriously difficult to study, which hampers progress testing and approving them. scientists have now used an innovative chemical method to uncover the biological mechanisms of Tecfidera, providing a powerful tool for exploring other reactive electrophilic drugs.
Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 30.09.2021
Relieving pain by mapping its biological signatures
Researchers at the University of Geneva and the Clinique romande de réadaptation in Sion have mapped the biomarkers of different types of pain to categorise and better treat them in the future. Many people are confronted with chronic pain that can last for months or even years. How to best treat chronic pain? First, pain must be categorized for the right treatment to be prescribed.
Life Sciences - Health - 30.09.2021
New photoelectric implant controls the activity of spinal neurons
A revolutionary implant developed at EPFL allows neuroscientists to activate or inhibit specific spinal-cord neurons by applying light at a specific wavelength. It will give researchers insight into how the nervous system works and the chance to develop new ways of treating neurological disorders. Grégoire Courtine doesn't hesitate to use the word "revolutionary" when describing the emerging field of optogenetics - a technology that uses pulses of light to control individual neural activity - and what it could mean for neuroscience.
Life Sciences - 29.09.2021
Robust gene networks from the depths of our evolutionary history
A sophisticated system guides the development of our limbs. Researchers at University of Basel have shed new light on the genetic toolkit used during evolution to create a range of different extremities such as fins, wings, hooves, toes and fingers. Much can go wrong when a fertilized egg develops into an embryo and ultimately gives rise to a newborn as mutations in the genome that affect development are relatively common.
Life Sciences - Physics - 28.09.2021
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI are the first to have joined two proteins together by means of a free-standing, rigid link. The structural element holds the two protein molecules together at a defined distance and angle, much the way a barbell handle connects two weights. This type of linkage could help, for example, to develop so-called virus-like particles for vaccines.
Life Sciences - Environment - 24.09.2021
The defensive arsenal of plant roots
A team from the University of Geneva has discovered the mechanisms that regulate the formation of the protective layer of plant roots. Plants adapt to their nutritional needs by modifying the permeability of their roots through the production or degradation of a cork-like layer called suberin. By studying the regulation of this protective layer in Arabidopsis thaliana , an international team, led by scientists from the University of Geneva , Switzerland, has discovered four molecular factors responsible for the genetic activation of suberin.
Health - Life Sciences - 24.09.2021
Detecting dementia in the blood
Empa researcher Peter Nirmalraj wants to image proteins with unprecedented precision - and thus gain insights into the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's. This should pave the way for an earlier diagnosis of the dementia disorder via a simple blood test. Together with neurologists from the Kantonsspital St.Gallen, a successful pilot study has now been completed.
Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.09.2021
Cells, cylinders and a vision of the future
The "gene scissors" CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to precisely modify genes in order to study their function in an organism. A researcher at Eawag has now succeeded for the first time in establishing the gene scissors for a fish cell line of rainbow trout. This means that, as of now, genetically modified cell lines can be produced.
Life Sciences - 23.09.2021
How tactile vibrations create illusions
Researchers from the University of Geneva and UNIFR decipher how the amplitude and frequency of tactile vibrations can bias how the brain interprets them. Among the traditional five human senses, touch is perhaps the least studied. Yet, it is solicited everywhere, all the time, and even more so in recent years with the widespread daily use of electronic devices that emit vibrations.
Life Sciences - Environment - 23.09.2021
A Glimpse into the ocean’s biological carbon pump
Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through microscopic algae that carry out photosynthesis and then sink to the deep sea when they die. This sinking enhances the degradation processes, as researchers have now discovered. Oceans play a key role in the global carbon dioxide balance. This is because billions of tiny algae live there, absorbing carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and incorporating it into their biomass.
Life Sciences - 09.09.2021
How serotonin curbs cocaine addiction
By identifying the role of serotonin during cocaine use, scientists explain why only one in five persons becomes addicted to this drug. Contrary to common thinking, cocaine triggers an addiction only in 20% of the consumers. But what happens in their brains when they lose control of their consumption? Thanks to a recent experimental method, neuroscientists at the University of Geneva , Switzerland, have revealed a brain mechanism specific to cocaine, which has the particularity of triggering a massive increase in serotonin in addition to the increase in dopamine common to all drugs.
Health - Life Sciences - 08.09.2021
Natural Killer Cells Coordinate Wound Healing
Natural killer cells do not just kill cancer cells or cells infected with viruses, they also mediate a trade-off between wound healing and bacterial defense in skin wounds. If the healing process is accelerated, the immune defense is weakened, researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown. This has relevance in treating skin injuries and in tackling antibiotic-resistant germs.
Life Sciences - 01.09.2021
Highly dynamic sex chromosomes in cichlid fishes
The cichlids of Lake Tanganyika in Africa are highly diverse - including with regard to sex chromosomes. These have changed extremely frequently in the course of the evolution of these fish and, depending on the species, can be of the type XY or ZW. This has been reported by a research team from the University of Basel and the Research Museum Koenig in Bonn in the scientific journal Science Advances.
Life Sciences - Health - 31.08.2021
How to produce proteins at the right speed
Using a dynamic observation technique of protein synthesis, scientists from the University of Geneva have deciphered the genetic mechanisms governing the speed of translation of messenger RNA. In all eukaryotic organisms, genetic material is stored in the cell nucleus in the form of DNA. In order to be used, this DNA is first transcribed into messenger RNA in the cell cytoplasm, then translated into protein with the help of ribosomes, small machines capable of decoding messenger RNA to synthesise the appropriate proteins.
Life Sciences - 27.08.2021
Embryonic development in slow motion
Roe deer are among the few mammals whose embryos go into a particularly long period of dormancy. Using modern molecular methods, researchers have shown for the first time what exactly happens in the embryo during this phase. They have identified signals that control the embryo`s awakening. Everyone is familiar with the roe deer, either from crossword puzzles or from real-life encounters during a jog or a hike in the forest: majestic creatures with elegant big black eyes.
Life Sciences - Health - 23.08.2021
Understanding how elephants use their trunk
A multidisciplinary team of scientists from the UNIGE identified how elephants evolved strategies that reduce the biomechanical complexity of their trunk. The elephant proboscis (trunk) exhibits an extraordinary kinematic versatility as it can manipulate a single blade of grass but also carry loads up to 270 kilograms.
Life Sciences - 23.08.2021
Faulty regulation of an architect gene can lead to rare bone disease
Researchers found that, if expressed too early during embryonic development, one of the genes that orchestrate the formation of limbs can lead to a rare disorder of bone growth. Mesomelic dysplasias are a group of rare genetic conditions characterized by extreme shortening of the long bones in the arms and legs.
Life Sciences - Computer Science - 20.08.2021
LiftPose3D: Turning 2D images into 3D models
Scientists have developed a deep learning-based method called LiftPose3D, which can reconstruct 3D animal poses using only 2D poses from one camera. This method will have impact in neuroscience and bioinspired robotics. "When people perform experiments in neuroscience they have to make precise measurements of behavior," says Professor Pavan Ramdya at EPFL's School of Life Sciences, who led the study.
Life Sciences - Health - 19.08.2021
Creation of a detailed ’catalogue’ of degradation products in cells
Cells have their own quality control to prevent the production and accumulation of harmful proteins. This quality control is essential for correct embryonic development in all mammals and plays an important role in tumors and genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. A group of researchers from the University of Bern and the University of Basel have now made visible and cataloged for the first time, "blueprints" that give rise to defective proteins and are normally recognized and rapidly degraded in cells.