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Life Sciences - Health - 29.08.2019
Preventing the onset of schizophrenia in mouse model
Preventing the onset of schizophrenia in mouse model
Although predisposing processes occur earlier, schizophrenia breaks out at young adulthood, suggesting it might involve a pathological transition during late brain development in predisposed individuals. Using a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, researchers from the Caroni group at the FMI showed that, like in patients, characteristic network and cognitive deficits only emerge in adult mice.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 29.08.2019
Hints of a volcanically active exomoon
Hints of a volcanically active exomoon
A rocky extrasolar moon (exomoon) with bubbling lava may orbit a planet 550 light-years away from us. This is suggested by an international team of researchers led by the University of Bern on the basis of theoretical predictions matching observations. The "exo-Io" would appear to be an extreme version of Jupiter's moon Io.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.08.2019
Brain stem cells have a good memory
Brain stem cells have a good memory
By successfully rejuvenating brain progenitor cells, researchers at UNIGE reveal an unsuspected role of the environment in setting  cellular properties. The cerebral cortex acts as the control centre of our cognitive processes. During embryogenesis, dozens of types of neurons with distinct functions come together to form the circuits that drive our thoughts and actions.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 28.08.2019
Providing a solution to the worst-ever prediction in physics
Providing a solution to the worst-ever prediction in physics
A UNIGE physicist has proposed a new approach to solving one of the biggest theoretical problems in physics: the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant, introduced a century ago by Albert Einstein in his theory of general relativity, is a thorn in the side of physicists. The difference between the theoretical prediction of this parameter and its measurement based on astronomical observations is of the order of 10121.

Social Sciences - 28.08.2019
Breaking away from gender inequality absolutely essential
Breaking away from gender inequality absolutely essential
A group of geoscientists, among them Eawag PhD student Andrea Popp, collected data for a conference paper to be given at the annual meeting of the EGU (European Geosciences Union). The decision was made to use social media for the purposes of the research, the central question of which was what colleagues think about the unequal treatment of men and women in the geosciences.

Computer Science / Telecom - Physics - 27.08.2019
Universal algorithm set to boost microscopes
Universal algorithm set to boost microscopes
EPFL scientists have developed an algorithm that can determine whether a super-resolution microscope is operating at maximum resolution based on a single image. The method is compatible with all types of microscopes and could one day be a standard feature of automated models. Thanks to the advent of super-resolution microscopes some 30 years ago, scientists can observe subcellular structures, proteins and living tissue with unprecedented precision.

Health - 23.08.2019
Bioprinting complex living tissue in just a few seconds
Bioprinting complex living tissue in just a few seconds
Researchers from EPFL and the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands have developed an extremely fast optical method for sculpting complex shapes in stem-cell-laden hydrogels and then vascularizing the resulting tissue. Their groundbreaking technique stands to change the field of tissue engineering.

Environment - Innovation - 23.08.2019
Energising buildings
Energising buildings
A solar façade developed at ETH Zurich combines electricity production with intelligent shading to achieve optimal energy balance. Heating or cooling internal spaces requires energy. More intelligent building façades could save much of that energy. A system developed at ETH Zurich uses movable solar panels to generate electricity while at the same time allowing the right amount of sunshine or shade to suit weather conditions and internal use.

Pharmacology - Health - 22.08.2019
Preventing tumour metastasis
Preventing tumour metastasis
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute, together with colleagues from the pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, have taken an important step towards the development of an agent against the metastasis of certain cancers. Using the Swiss Light Source, they deciphered the structure of a receptor that plays a crucial role in the migration of cancer cells.

Life Sciences - 22.08.2019
Brain finds order amidst chaos
Brain finds order amidst chaos
How does the brain find order amidst a sea of noise and chaos' Researchers at the EPFL Blue Brain Project have found the answer to this long-standing question by using advanced simulation techniques to investigate the way neurons talk to each other while submerged in a sea of noise and chaos. In a paper published , they found that by working as a team, cortical neurons can respond even to weak input against the backdrop of noise and chaos, allowing the brain to find order.

Physics - 22.08.2019
Visualising strong magnetic fields with neutrons
Visualising strong magnetic fields with neutrons
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have developed a new method with which strong magnetic fields can be precisely measured. They use neutrons obtained from the SINQ spallation source. In the future, it will therefore be possible to measure the fields of magnets that are already installed in devices and thus are inaccessible by other probing techniques.

Physics - Chemistry - 21.08.2019
Graphene nanoflakes: a new tool for precision medicine
Graphene nanoflakes: a new tool for precision medicine
Chemists funded by the SNSF have created a new compound for flexible drug delivery that specifically targets prostate cancer cells. Incorporating four different molecules, the compound prevents tumour cells from multiplying, can be detected by medical imaging and has staying power in the bloodstream.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 20.08.2019
Methods for reducing the risks of melting glaciers
Methods for reducing the risks of melting glaciers
Under a pilot project being spearheaded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), a team of experts - including civil and environmental engineers from EPFL - are studying methods to help protect a region of the Andes Mountains threatened by glacial retreat. The testing phase of the pilot project will conclude at the end of the month.

Life Sciences - Health - 19.08.2019
Optic nerve stimulation to aid the blind
Optic nerve stimulation to aid the blind
EPFL scientists are investigating new ways to provide visual signals to the blind by directly stimulating the optic nerve. Their preliminary study on animals uses a new type of neural electrode and provides distinct signals. Scientists from EPFL in Switzerland and Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna in Italy are developing technology for the blind that bypasses the eyeball entirely and sends messages to the brain.

Environment - 19.08.2019
Cows Influence Plant Composition of Pastures
Cows Influence Plant Composition of Pastures
Angus, or Scottish Highland: not all cows are the same when it comes to a preference for different shrub, herbaceous and grass species. Research work carried out by Agroscope with the Universities of Heidelberg and Göttingen in Germany shows that cattle breed influences the botanical composition of pasture.

Life Sciences - Health - 19.08.2019
When liver disease affects the brain
When liver disease affects the brain
Scientists have demonstrated how chronic liver diseases cause molecular changes in the brain. They carried out their research using the 9.4 Tesla high-magnetic-field MRI machine at the Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM) at EPFL. The liver plays a vital role as a filter in the human body.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.08.2019
When a diseased liver disrupts the brain
When a diseased liver disrupts the brain
Researchers from UNIGE, CHUV, EPFL, CIBM, HUG and UNIL have demonstrated how chronic liver diseases cause molecular changes in the brain. The liver plays a vital role as a filter in the human body.

Life Sciences - Health - 19.08.2019
Smart interaction between proteins
Smart interaction between proteins
Very little was known till now about DNA repair by homologous recombination, which is fundamental for human health. Now an ETH research group has for the first time isolated and studied all the key proteins involved in this process, laying the foundation for investigating many diseases. Within our body, the process of cell division is constantly creating new cells to replace old or damaged ones.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.08.2019
Function from structure: the double life of a DUB
Deubiquitinases (DUBs) play a general role removing protein-degrading ubiquitins throughout the cell and are not typically known for specificity. Analyzing the two protein complexes BRISC and BRCA1-A, which have the same DUB core but play different roles in human biology, the Thomä group - in a collaboration with the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBR) - showed that DUBs can have diversified targeting and regulatory functions.

Life Sciences - Environment - 16.08.2019
Humans May Have Had Key Role in Cave Bear Extinction
Humans May Have Had Key Role in Cave Bear Extinction
Humans may have played a substantial role in the extinction of the European cave bear at the end of the last ice age. These findings of a study with the involvement of the University of Zurich suggest a drastic cave bear population decline starting around 40,000 years ago. Where in Europe did different populations of cave bears live and how they did they migrate during the Late Pleistocene? This is the topic that Verena Schünemann from the Institute of Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich and a team of researchers investigated.
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