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Results 101 - 120 of 188.


Health - Life Sciences - 20.06.2019
Cancer control: Structure of important transport protein solved
Cancer control: Structure of important transport protein solved
For the first time, Bernese researchers have been able to solve the structure of a transport protein and thus to describe the functional mechanism that plays a significant role in the survival of cancer cells. This is an important step towards developing effective inhibitors and fight tumor growth. Certain cancer cells depend on exporting the metabolite lactate, which accumulates during the generation on energy.

Environment - Life Sciences - 20.06.2019
Software to protect the world's most endangered species
Software to protect the world's most endangered species
By combining genetic and environmental databases, researchers at EPFL are seeking to help biologists identify more accurately the animal and plant species most exposed to climate change, in order to develop appropriate conservation methods. Northern Morocco is home to a type of sheep that has a specific gene, developed over thousands of years of evolution.

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 17.06.2019
Preventing drugs from being transported
Certain membrane proteins specialise in transporting molecules out of cells - a problem for the efficacy of cancer medication and antibiotics. An international research team has investigated the transport mechanism of a bacterial membrane protein using an artificially produced antibody fragment. The transport proteins, called ABC exporters, are present, for instance, in the cell membranes of bacteria and in large quantities in cancer cells and are responsible for transporting small molecules out of the cells.

Life Sciences - 17.06.2019
Rinsing System in Stomach Protects the Teeth of Ruminants
Rinsing System in Stomach Protects the Teeth of Ruminants
When they graze, goats, sheep and cows often ingest bits of earth that can be damaging to their teeth. Researchers from the University of Zurich have now shown how the animals protect themselves against dental abrasion: Their stomach system rinses dust and sand off the ingested food before it is chewed for the second time.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.06.2019
Schizophrenia: adolescence is the game-changer
Schizophrenia: adolescence is the game-changer
Researchers at UNIGE have discovered that the development of the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for memory and emotions, is severely impacted in adolescence following the onset of the first psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia causes hallucinations and memory or cognition problems inter alia.

Health - Life Sciences - 13.06.2019
Genetic inequity towards endocrine disruptors
Genetic inequity towards endocrine disruptors
By identifying the genetic causes of susceptibility to endocrine disruptors, researchers from UNIGE and the HUG highlight a fundamental inequity towards the toxicity induced by these products that are found everywhere in our environment. Phthalates, one of the most common endocrine disruptors, are commonly used by industry in many plastic products - toys, clothing, baby bottles or even medical equipment - as well as in cosmetics.

Life Sciences - Environment - 13.06.2019
Neurotoxins damage aquatic organisms differently than expected
Neurotoxins damage aquatic organisms differently than expected
The insecticide imidacloprid is one of the strongest insect toxins and belongs to the group of neonicotinoids. Since 2019, the use of imidacloprid, along with two other substances in this group, is only allowed in greenhouses, as this substance is one of those responsible for the death of bees. Imidacloprid is also very toxic for aquatic organisms; as is stated in the manufacturer's certification reports.

Life Sciences - 12.06.2019
Reaching and Grasping - Learning fine motor coordination changes the brain
Reaching and Grasping - Learning fine motor coordination changes the brain
When we train the reaching for and grasping of objects, we also train our brain. In other words, this action brings about changes in the connections of a certain neuronal population in the red nucleus, a region of the midbrain. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have discovered this group of nerve cells in the red nucleus.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.06.2019
The cholera bacterium's 3-in-1 toolkit for life in the ocean
The cholera bacterium's 3-in-1 toolkit for life in the ocean
The cholera bacterium uses a grappling hook-like appendage to take up DNA, bind to nutritious surfaces and recognise 'family' members, EPFL scientists have found. These discoveries will advance our understanding of how the bacterium that causes cholera adapts and survives in its natural environment.

Life Sciences - Physics - 10.06.2019
New method reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo
New method reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo
Characterizing chromosome structure is fundamental to a better understanding of gene expression. Current experimental methods helped to build mechanistic models of chromosome folding, however they could not be formally validated so far by independent techniques. This is what the Giorgetti group just did - thanks to a new method they developed to measure chromosome structure quantitatively in living cells.

Life Sciences - 07.06.2019
When social interaction helps you choose your food
When social interaction helps you choose your food
By deciphering the neural mechanisms involved in food consumption, UNIGE scientists demonstrate the importance of social interactions when choosing food and, more broadly, when adapting to the environment. How do we choose our food? By studying the neurobiological mechanisms involved in food choices of rodents, neuroscientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have identified the important and lasting influence that peers can have on eating habits.

Life Sciences - Health - 05.06.2019
"Goldilocks" neurons promote REM sleep
It has been a mystery why REM sleep, or dream sleep, increases when the room temperature is "just right". Neuroscientists from Bern show that melanin-concentrating hormone neurons within the hypothalamus increase REM sleep when the need for body temperature defense is minimized, such as when sleeping in a warm and comfortable room temperature.

Life Sciences - Environment - 03.06.2019
"Copying & pasting" a gene allows stickleback to live in freshwater habitats
Darwin himself recognised the principle of adaptive radiation as being an important process in evolution. This principle says that, in a competitive situation, individuals in a species will search for new niches, where their populations adapt to environmental conditions through natural selection. This means that a single original species can fan out and evolve into numerous species with different niches.

Life Sciences - Physics - 30.05.2019
A new mechanism for accessing damaged DNA
A new mechanism for accessing damaged DNA
May 30, 2019 UV light damages the DNA of skin cells, which can lead to skin cancer. But this process is counteracted by the DNA repair machinery, acting as a molecular sunscreen. It has been unclear, however, how repair proteins work on DNA tightly packed in chromatin, where access to DNA damage is restricted by protein packaging.

Life Sciences - Agronomy / Food Science - 29.05.2019
Chimpanzees Catch and Eat Crabs
Chimpanzees Catch and Eat Crabs
Chimpanzees have a mainly vegetarian diet, but do occasionally eat meat. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown for the first time that chimpanzees also eat crabs. In the rainforest of Guinea, the researchers observed how chimpanzees regularly fish for crabs. “Our study is the first evidence showing that non-human apes regularly catch and eat aquatic fauna,” says Kathelijne Koops, researcher at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Zurich.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.05.2019
Music helps to build the brains of very premature babies
Music helps to build the brains of very premature babies
Researchers from UNIGE and HUG demonstrate how music specially composed for premature infants strengthens the development of their brain networks and could limit the neurodevelopmental delays that often affect these children.    In Switzerland, as in most industrialized countries, nearly 1% of children are born "very prematurely", i.e. before the 32nd week of pregnancy, which represents about 800 children yearly.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 27.05.2019
Altered Brain Activity in Antisocial Teenagers
Teenage girls with problematic social behavior display reduced brain activity and weaker connectivity between the brain regions implicated in emotion regulation. The findings of an international study carried out by researchers from the University of Zurich and others now offer a neurobiological explanation for the difficulties some girls have in controlling their emotions, and provide indications for possible therapy approaches.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.05.2019
New way to eliminate cancer stem cells in prostate cancer
New way to eliminate cancer stem cells in prostate cancer
Tumor stem cells from prostate cancer. The coloring with different fluorochromes highlights the extensive network of mitochondria (red/green) surrounding the cell nuclei (blue). A study by investigators at the Institute of Oncology Research (IOR, affiliated to USI Universitą della Svizzera italiana) reveals a new way to eliminate cancer stem cells (CSC) in prostate tumours and enhance treatment efficacy.

Life Sciences - 22.05.2019
A role for gene activators in 3D nuclear organization
A role for gene activators in 3D nuclear organization
May 22, 2019 From yeast to man, the genome is partitioned into subnuclear compartments, with active euchromatin spatially separated from silent heterochromatin, which is often found at the nuclear periphery. This spatial distribution correlates with gene expression and contributes to cell-type integrity.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.05.2019
The insulin under the influence of light
The insulin under the influence of light
By understanding how day-night alternation affects the effect of insulin in tissues, researchers at UNIGE are highlighting the role of circadian rhythms in diabetes. The disruption of our internal clocks seems to play a significant role in the explosion of metabolic diseases observed in recent decades, and particularly of diabetes.