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Results 21 - 40 of 178.


Life Sciences - Physics - 29.10.2019
Turning a dangerous toxin into a biosensor
Turning a dangerous toxin into a biosensor
Some bacteria release a toxin that forms pores on other cells. EPFL scientists have studied the pore-forming toxin aerolysin and genetically engineered it to be used as a high-resolution sensor for biological molecules like DNA and proteins. Image: Molecular simulation of an engineered aerolysin pore (light blue color) embedded into a membrane bilayer (cream color) and translocating DNA (red color).

Life Sciences - Health - 24.10.2019
Bacteria must be
Bacteria must be "stressed out" to divide
Bacterial cell division is controlled by both enzymatic activity and mechanical forces, which work together to control its timing and location, a new study from EPFL finds. A new study from EPFL scientists has found that bacteria use mechanical forces to divide, along with biological factors. The research, led by the groups of John McKinney and Georg Fantner at EPFL, came after recent studies suggested that bacterial division is not only governed by biology, but also by physics.

Life Sciences - 23.10.2019
Marmoset Monkeys can learn a new Dialect
Marmoset Monkeys can learn a new Dialect
Monkeys and other animals communicate through calls that can differ depending on region. The common marmoset is one such animal that communicates using regional dialects. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now found out that they even adapt their dialect when they move to a different area.

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 23.10.2019
Antibiotics with Novel Mechanism of Action Discovered
Many life-threatening bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics. Swiss researchers co-headed by the University of Zurich have now discovered a new class of antibiotics with a unique spectrum of activity and mechanism of action - a major step in the fight against antimicrobial resistance.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.10.2019
Special cells contribute to regenerate the heart in Zebrafish
Special cells contribute to regenerate the heart in Zebrafish
It is already known that zebrafish can flexibly regenerate their hearts after injury. An international research group led by Prof. Nadia Mercader of the University of Bern now shows that certain heart muscle cells play a central role in this process. The insights gained could be used to initiate a similar repair process in the human heart.

Life Sciences - 22.10.2019
A fundamental neuronal microcircuit for learning
A fundamental neuronal microcircuit for learning
How does the brain control the mechanisms of memory so that it only remembers major events in a constantly changing environment? The group of Andreas Lüthi has now described a fundamental neuronal microcircuit that allows mice to learn about unexpected important events and adapt their behavior accordingly.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.10.2019
Protein in Blood Protects against Neuronal Damage after Brain Hemorrhage
Protein in Blood Protects against Neuronal Damage after Brain Hemorrhage
Patients who survive a cerebral hemorrhage may suffer delayed severe brain damage caused by free hemoglobin, which comes from red blood cells and damages neurons. Researchers at the University of Zurich and the UniversityHospital Zurich have now discovered a protective protein in the body called haptoglobin, which prevents this effect.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.10.2019
EPFL is developing next-generation soft hearing implants
EPFL is developing next-generation soft hearing implants
Working with clinicians from Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School, a team of EPFL researchers has developed a conformable electrode implant that will allow people with a dysfunctional inner ear to hear again. This new device could replace existing auditory brainstem implants, which have a number of shortcomings.

Environment - Life Sciences - 16.10.2019
Important species interactions can destabilize aquatic ecosystems in response to nutrient inputs
Important species interactions can destabilize aquatic ecosystems in response to nutrient inputs
Ecosystems provide numerous benefits, supplying food, clean water and other resources. So, it is vital that ecosystem stability is maintained in the face of disturbances such as drought, heatwaves or nutrient inputs. Nutrient inputs can be particularly problematic in aquatic ecosystems if they lead to algal blooms.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2019
Raw Meat-Based Diets for Pets Pose a Health Risk for Humans
Multidrug-resistant bacteria are found in half of all dog foods made from raw meat, researchers from the University of Zurich have found. Feeding pets a diet of raw meat, also known as a "BARF" diet, is a growing trend. The resistant bacteria in the raw food can be transmitted to the pets - and thus also to humans.

Life Sciences - 15.10.2019
The Brain Does not Follow the Head
The Brain Does not Follow the Head
The human brain is about three times the size of the brains of great apes. This has to do, among other things, with the evolution of novel brain structures that enabled complex behaviors such as language and tool production. A study by anthropologists at the University of Zurich now shows that changes in the brain occurred independent of evolutionary rearrangements of the braincase.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 14.10.2019
Tissue damage caused by a heart attack to be reduced by 30%?
Tissue damage caused by a heart attack to be reduced by 30%?
Scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Lyon have discovered which molecule is held responsible for tissue necrosis due to an infarctus, and how to reduce the tissue damage by 30% in mice. Each year, heart attacks kill almost 10 million people in the world, and more than 6 million die from stroke.

Life Sciences - Computer Science / Telecom - 14.10.2019
"Virtual microscopes" freely accessible, thanks to USI’s contribution
Molecular dynamics simulations represent an increasingly important cornerstone of modern scientific research, thanks to their unparalleled ability to meticulously describe fundamental aspects of complex systems. It is not a coincidence that nowadays molecular simulations are considered a "virtual microscope" from which admire and examine biological processes, as well as confirm through "computational assays" innovative hypotheses which provide the basis for designing new experiments.

Life Sciences - Microtechnics - 11.10.2019
DeepFly3D: the deep-learning way to design fly-like robots
DeepFly3D: the deep-learning way to design fly-like robots
EPFL scientists have developed a deep-learning based motion-capture software that uses multiple camera views to model the movements of a fly in three dimensions. The ultimate aim is to use this knowledge to design fly-like robots. "Just think about what a fly can do," says Professor Pavan Ramdya, whose lab at EPFL's Brain Mind Institute , with the lab of Professor Pascal Fua at EPFL's Institute for Computer Science, led the study.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.10.2019
Babies burdened by environmental estrogens in mothers' wombs
Babies burdened by environmental estrogens in mothers’ wombs
Early childhood life in the womb is particularly sensitive to the effects of environmental pollutants. A team from Empa and the University of Vienna has now for the first time been able to show how a pollutant from contaminated food - the environmental estrogen zearalenone - spreads in the womb and is metabolized into harmful metabolites.

Life Sciences - 08.10.2019
Complex odors made simple
Complex odors made simple
Animals are able to attach simple ratings to complex objects in their environment to guide behavior. For example, humans can easily tell whether they like a wine or not, which will influence their future choices in the wine store. Similarly, animals can tell whether a complex odor is good or bad in order to decide whether to approach or avoid it.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.10.2019
The cholera bacterium can steal up to 150 genes in one go
The cholera bacterium can steal up to 150 genes in one go
EPFL scientists have discovered that predatory bacteria like the cholera pathogen can steal up to 150 genes in one go from their neighbors. The study sheds light on one of the most fundamental mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer. In 2015, EPFL researchers led by Melanie Blokesch published a seminal paper in Science showing that the bacterium responsible for cholera, Vibrio cholerae , uses a spring-loaded spear to literally stab neighboring bacteria and steal their DNA.

Life Sciences - Environment - 08.10.2019
High-speed evolution observed in daphnia
High-speed evolution observed in daphnia
Daphnia, also known as water fleas, play an important role in the food web of lakes: they feed on phytoplankton and are eaten by predators such as fish. Their food resources show marked seasonal variation: in eutrophic waters, the summer is particularly challenging for daphnia, as the phytoplankton community is dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), which are of poor nutritional quality and often contain toxins.

Life Sciences - 02.10.2019
Genetic development is influenced by the host-parasite relationship - but not only that!
Genetic development is influenced by the host-parasite relationship - but not only that!
In textbooks on evolution, conceptional and mathematical models explain how a host-parasite relationship affects the genome of both organisms. This is known as coevolution. How this interaction really functions can, on the other hand, be proven in vivo for only a few genes. Studies of the whole genome of both species that also show the progression of this mutual influence over time have never been done before.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 26.09.2019
Healthy organelles, healthy cells
Healthy organelles, healthy cells
It has recently become clear just how important membraneless organelles are for cells. Now biochemists at ETH Zurich have discovered a novel mechanism that regulates the formation of these organelles. This has laid the foundation for more targeted research into diseases such as Alzheimer's or ALS. For a long time, the contents of cells were thought to be fairly unstructured and chaotic: a mixture of proteins, DNA and a multitude of small metabolic molecules.