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Results 61 - 80 of 457.


Life Sciences - Environment - 26.08.2020
Explosive diversification explained by network analysis
Explosive diversification explained by network analysis
Using genomic analyses of 100 cichlid species, scientists from Eawag and the University Bern, together with co-workers in Australia, the UK, Tanzania, Uganda and the US, have investigated the striking variation observed in cichlid fish speciation rates. Their findings show that exchanges of genetic variants between existing species dramatically accelerate the development of new species - given favourable ecological conditions.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.08.2020
How Plants Close their Gates when Microbes Attack
Like humans, plants protect themselves against pathogens. An international consortium under the lead of UZH professor Cyril Zipfel has now identified a long sought-after factor of this plant immune system: The calcium channel triggers the closure of stomata upon contact with microbes such as bacteria.

Health - 26.08.2020
A model for keeping the pandemic in check in Italy
A model for keeping the pandemic in check in Italy
A team of researchers has been modeling the potential spread of the coronavirus pandemic in Italy. Using their model, they can calculate the number of exposed and highly infectious individuals and the daily isolation efforts required to bring down the epidemic curve. In April, a team led by Professor Andrea Rinaldo, the head of EPFL's Laboratory of Ecohydrology (ECHO), published a paper that presented a model for the spread of COVID-19 in Italy.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.08.2020
Discovery of new genes that influence the success of cancer treatment
Discovery of new genes that influence the success of cancer treatment
One of the great mysteries of cancer research is why certain patients respond better to radiation therapy than others. Researchers at the University of Bern have now discovered which genes play an important role in this. This results in new findings for cancer treatment. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of today's cancer treatment.

Environment - 24.08.2020
Climate change and land use are accelerating soil erosion by water
Climate change and land use are accelerating soil erosion by water
Soil loss due to water runoff could increase greatly around the world over the next 50 years due to climate change and intensive land cultivation. This was the conclusion of an international team of researchers led by the University of Basel, which published the results from its model calculation in the scientific journal PNAS.

Chemistry - Physics - 24.08.2020
Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles are becoming longer lasting
Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles are becoming longer lasting
An international research team led by the University of Bern has succeeded in developing an electrocatalyst for hydrogen fuel cells which, in contrast to the catalysts commonly used today, does not require a carbon carrier and is therefore much more stable. The new process is industrially applicable and can be used to further optimize fuel cell powered vehicles without CO2 emissions.

Chemistry - Physics - 20.08.2020
Electron movements in liquid measured in super-slow motion
Electron movements in liquid measured in super-slow motion
Electrons are able to move within molecules, for example when they are excited from outside or in the course of a chemical reaction. For the first time, scientists have now succeeded in studying the first few dozen attoseconds of this electron movement in a liquid. To understand how chemical reactions begin, chemists have been using super-slow motion experiments for years to study the very first moments of a reaction.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 20.08.2020

The discovery of the first galaxy emitting "extreme" ultraviolet radiation could help to better understand how the cosmic era known as the "Dark Ages" came to an end more than 13 billion years ago. Thanks to the Indian satellite AstroSat, an international team, including astronomers from the University of Geneva, has detected the first galaxy, called AUDFs01, emitting "extreme" ultraviolet radiation, i.e. highly energetic (with a wavelength of about 60 nanometres, or billionths of a metre).

Materials Science - Innovation - 20.08.2020
Aerogel - the micro structural material of the future
Aerogel - the micro structural material of the future
Aerogel is an excellent thermal insulator. So far, however, it has mainly been used on a large scale, for example in environmental technology, in physical experiments or in industrial catalysis. Empa researchers have now succeeded in making aerogels accessible to microelectronics and precision engineering: An article in the latest issue of the scientific journal "Nature" shows how 3D-printed parts made of silica aerogels and silica composite materials can be manufactured with high precision.

Environment - 20.08.2020
Anthropogenic CO2 increase is unprecedented
Anthropogenic CO2 increase is unprecedented
Even in earlier warm periods there were pulse-like releases of CO2 to the atmosphere. Today's anthropogenic CO2 rise, however, is more than six times larger and almost ten times faster than previous jumps in the CO2 concentration. This is the conclusion reached by a European research team led by the University of Bern.

Astronomy / Space Science - Materials Science - 19.08.2020
New instrument for the search for life in space
New instrument for the search for life in space
Researchers at the University of Bern have developed the highly sensitive instrument ORIGIN for future space missions, which can detect minute traces of life. Space agencies such as NASA have already expressed interest in testing ORIGIN for future missions. For example, the instrument could be used for missions to the icy moons Europa (Jupiter) and Enceladus (Saturn).

Chemistry - Physics - 18.08.2020
Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Unraveling the initial molecular events of respiration
Physicists from Switzerland, Japan and Germany have unveiled the mechanism by which the first event of respiration takes place in heme proteins. Respiration is a fundamental process of all living things, allowing them to produce energy, stay healthy, and survive. In cells, respiration involves what are known as "respiratory proteins", e.g. hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in muscles.

Physics - Electroengineering - 18.08.2020
Artificial materials for more efficient electronics
Artificial materials for more efficient electronics
The discovery of an unprecedented physical effect in a new artificial material marks a significant milestone in the lengthy process of developing "made-to-order" materials and more energy-efficient electronics. We are surrounded by electronic devices. Transistors are used to power telephones, computers, televisions, hi-fi systems and game consoles as well as cars, airplanes and the like.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.08.2020
RNA as a future cure for hereditary diseases
RNA as a future cure for hereditary diseases
ETH Zurich scientists have developed an RNA molecule that can be used in bone marrow cells to correct genetic errors that affect protein production. Patients suffering from a rare hereditary disease that causes a painful hypersensitivity to sunlight could benefit in future. Short RNA molecules can be used as medication.

Astronomy / Space Science - 18.08.2020
New tool helps interpret future searches for life on exoplanets
New tool helps interpret future searches for life on exoplanets
One way to determine whether there is life on another planet is to look for biosignatures in the light that is scattered off its atmosphere. Scientists at EPFL and University of Rome Tor Vergata have developed an original model that interprets the results of that analysis. Is there life on a distant planet? One way astronomers are trying to find out is by analyzing the light that is scattered off a planet's atmosphere.

Life Sciences - 17.08.2020
Protective factor against psychological trauma
The endogenous regulation of a specific gene is associated with a reduced risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder following a terrifying experience. In particular, traumatic memories of the experience are less severe. Researchers from the University of Basel have reported these findings in the scientific journal PNAS.

Music - 17.08.2020
Bringing computational music analysis beyond the traditional canon
Bringing computational music analysis beyond the traditional canon
Scientists in EPFL's Digital and Cognitive Musicology Lab (DCML), led by Martin Rohrmeier, have used data science and statistical techniques to characterize the musical style of choro, a primarily instrumental genre from Brazil, for the very first time. The study , which was recently published in the Journal of New Music Research , identifies key stylistic traits from some 300 pieces of choro music, providing an unprecedented empirical analysis of the harmony and form of the genre, which emerged in 19 th century Brazil and is still popular today.

Career - Environment - 17.08.2020

Environment - 14.08.2020
Even small-scale solutions are affordable
Even small-scale solutions are affordable
How should Europe organise its renewable energy supply network - on a continental, national or regional level? It's a controversial issue. A Swiss-German research team has analysed the costs and technical feasibility of supply networks of various sizes. The European Union aims to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, and is relying largely on renewable electricity to reach this goal.

Life Sciences - Health - 14.08.2020
How a protein stops cells from attacking their own DNA
How a protein stops cells from attacking their own DNA
Scientists at EPFL have demonstrated the mechanism that allows cells to fight off viral DNA without triggering an immune response against their own genetic material. Viruses multiply by injecting their DNA into a host cell. Once it enters the intracellular fluid, this foreign material triggers a defense mechanism known as the cGAS-STING pathway.