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Health - Pharmacology - 23.05.2024
New approach to Epstein-Barr virus and resulting diseases
New approach to Epstein-Barr virus and resulting diseases
The Epstein-Barr virus can cause a spectrum of diseases, including a range of cancers. Emerging data now show that inhibition of a specific metabolic pathway in infected cells can diminish latent infection and therefore the risk of downstream disease, as reported by researchers from the University of Basel and the University Hospital Basel in the journal Science.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 22.05.2024
The double face of fentanyl: the neuronal basis of opioid addiction
The double face of fentanyl: the neuronal basis of opioid addiction
Scientists from the University of Geneva have discovered that fentanyl leads to the activation of two distinct cell populations in the brain, first when the drug is taken and then during withdrawal, suggesting a novel model for opioid addiction. Fentanyl is a particularly powerful synthetic opioid. Diverted from its original medical use, it has become a deadly drug responsible for three-quarters of overdose deaths in the United States.

Health - Pharmacology - 22.05.2024
Gentler cell therapies for blood cancer
Researchers have developed an approach to -deleting- a blood system affected by leukemia while simultaneously building up a new, healthy system with donor blood stem cells. Writing in the journal Nature, the team reports on the promising results obtained in animal experiments and with human cells in the laboratory.

Physics - 22.05.2024
Gamma-ray method monitors nuclear reactors safely and quickly
Gamma-ray method monitors nuclear reactors safely and quickly
Scientists at EPFL have devised and tested out a new, gamma-noise method for monitoring nuclear reactors non-invasively and from a distance. The new method, tested out on EPFL's CROCUS nuclear reactor, can improve nuclear safety and treaty compliance. Monitoring nuclear reactors around the world to ensure that they comply with international treaties is essential for safety.

Agronomy / Food Science - Health - 21.05.2024
Chocolate that harnesses the full potential of the cocoa fruit
Chocolate that harnesses the full potential of the cocoa fruit
Researchers at ETH Zurich have teamed up with the food industry to produce a whole-fruit variety of chocolate. This helps increase the value creation of cocoa farming - and is healthier. For many people, chocolate is a sweet delight: its main components are cocoa mass and cocoa butter, which are extracted from the cocoa fruit.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.05.2024
How immune cells recognize the abnormal metabolism of cancer cells
How immune cells recognize the abnormal metabolism of cancer cells
When cells become tumor cells, their metabolism changes fundamentally. Researchers at the University of Basel and the University Hospital Basel have now demonstrated that this change leaves traces that could provide targets for cancer immunotherapies. Cancer cells function in turbo mode: Their metabolism is programmed for rapid proliferation, whereby their genetic material is also constantly copied and translated into proteins.

History / Archeology - Earth Sciences - 21.05.2024
Cosmic rays illuminate the past
Cosmic rays illuminate the past
Researchers at the University of Bern have for the first time been able to pin down a prehistoric settlement of early farmers in northern Greece dating back more than 7,000 years to the year. For this they combined annual growth ring measurements on wooden building elements with the sudden spike of cosmogenic radiocarbon in 5259 BC.

Chemistry - 21.05.2024
An AI leap into chemical synthesis
An AI leap into chemical synthesis
Scientists introduce ChemCrow, a large language model-based AI system that revolutionizes chemistry by integrating 18 advanced tools for tasks like organic synthesis and drug discovery. ChemCrow streamlines complex processes in chemical research, making it more efficient for experts and novices alike.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 20.05.2024
Machine learning accelerates discovery of solar-cell perovskites
Machine learning accelerates discovery of solar-cell perovskites
An EPFL research project has developed a method based on machine-learning to quickly and accurately search large databases, leading to the discovery of 14 new materials for solar cells. As we integrate solar energy into our daily lives, it has become important to find materials that efficiently convert sunlight into electricity.

Media - Linguistics / Literature - 17.05.2024
Orphan articles: the 'dark matter' of Wikipedia
Orphan articles: the ’dark matter’ of Wikipedia
Wikipedia is the largest platform for open and freely accessible knowledge online yet, in a new study, researchers have found that around 15% of the content is effectively invisible to readers browsing within Wikipedia. They have developed a new tool to help overcome this. With 60 million articles in more than 300 language versions, Wikipedia's available content grows continuously at a rate of around 200 thousand new articles each month.

Physics - Innovation - 16.05.2024
Artificial intelligence calculates phase diagrams
Artificial intelligence calculates phase diagrams
Researchers at the University of Basel have developed a new method for calculating phase diagrams of physical systems that works similarly to ChatGPT. This artificial intelligence could even automate scientific experiments in the future. A year and a half ago, ChatGPT was released, and ever since, there has been hardly anything that cannot be created with this new form of artificial intelligence: texts, images, videos, and even music.

Health - Pharmacology - 16.05.2024
At the right time for tumours
By examining the immune modulations of tumours during the day, scientists from the University of Geneva and the LMU Munich are demonstrating their impact on the diagnosis and management of patients. The currently most promising anti-tumour treatments are immunotherapies, which aim to boost the action of the patients' immune system to fight cancer.

Life Sciences - 16.05.2024
Quantifying inbreeding: a novel model for monitoring genetic health
Quantifying inbreeding: a novel model for monitoring genetic health
A new statistical approach published in the journal PNAS reveals a major advance in the measurement of inbreeding. Under the direction of Jérôme Goudet, professor at the University of Lausanne and group leader at the SIB, the authors have developed a promising method for studying endangered species.

Environment - Innovation - 15.05.2024
Using solar energy to generate heat at high temperatures
Using solar energy to generate heat at high temperatures
Instead of burning coal or oil to produce cement or steel, in the future solar energy could be used for this purpose. Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a thermal trap that can absorb concentrated sunlight and deliver heat at over thousand degrees Celsius. The production of cement, metals and many chemical commodities requires extremely high temperatures of over a thousand degrees Celsius.

Physics - Computer Science - 15.05.2024
A new, low-cost, high-efficiency photonic integrated circuit
A new, low-cost, high-efficiency photonic integrated circuit
Researchers at EPFL have developed scalable photonic integrated circuits, based on lithium tantalate, marking a significant advancement in optical technologies with potential to widespread commercial applications. The rapid advancement in photonic integrated circuits (PICs), whichcombine multiple optical devices and functionalities on a single chip, has revolutionized optical communications and computing systems.

Transport - Innovation - 15.05.2024
Researchers outsmarted EasyRide function on Swiss travel app
Researchers outsmarted EasyRide function on Swiss travel app
Experiments by ETH Zurich computer security researchers showed that smartphones can be manipulated to allow the owner to ride Swiss trains for free. The researchers also highlighted ways of curbing such misuse. It makes travelling by train, bus and tram super easy: instead of buying a conventional ticket, people using the EasyRide function in the SBB app can start their journey with a single swipe on their smartphone.

Health - 15.05.2024
New cells could be key to treating obesity
New cells could be key to treating obesity
New cells discovered in human omental adipose tissue inhibit fat cell formation, revealing why 'apple' body shapes may pose higher metabolic health risks. Image: Confocal microscopy fluorescent images of a human omental adipose tissue section (visceral fat), depicting the mesothelial cell layer surrounding lobules of adipocytes.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.05.2024
Portable method lets scientists identify plant DNA out in the field
Portable method lets scientists identify plant DNA out in the field
In EPFL's GenoRobotics project, a cross-disciplinary team of students is developing a novel method for identifying plant DNA - one that's faster, cheaper and less energy-intensive than the conventional one. The team hopes their new protocol, designed for use out in the field, will make it easier to categorize plants and ultimately help protect biodiversity.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 14.05.2024
A bionanomachine for green chemistry
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have for the first time precisely characterised the enzyme styrene oxide isomerase, which can be used to produce valuable chemicals and drug precursors in an environmentally friendly manner. The study appears today in the journal Nature Chemistry . Enzymes are powerful biomolecules that can be used to produce many substances at ambient conditions.

Astronomy / Space - 14.05.2024
Discovery of a planet around an ultra-cool star
Artist's concept of the exoplanet SPECULOOS-3 b orbiting its ultra-cool red dwarf star. The planet is as big as Earth, while its star is slightly larger than Jupiter, but much more massive. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech An international team of astronomers - including members of the NCCR PlanetS , the University of Geneva and the University of Bern (UNIBE) - has discovered, for only the second time, an Earth-sized exoplanet (SPECULOOS-3 b) around an ultra-cool Red Dwarf star.
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