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Results 21 - 40 of 222.


Life Sciences - Physics - 30.05.2019
A new mechanism for accessing damaged DNA
A new mechanism for accessing damaged DNA
UV light damages the DNA of skin cells, which can lead to skin cancer. But this process is counteracted by the DNA repair machinery, acting as a molecular sunscreen. It has been unclear, however, how repair proteins work on DNA tightly packed in chromatin, where access to DNA damage is restricted by protein packaging.

Materials Science - 29.05.2019
Desired deformation
Desired deformation
Since last week there is a unique wooden building in the Remstal near Stuttgart: a tower made of self-formed spruce boards. The method, which has been developed at Empa and ETH Zurich, uses the natural swelling and shrinking of wood under the influence of moisture and thus enables a new and unexpected architecture for the construction with the renewable and sustainable resource of wood.

Agronomy / Food Science - Environment - 29.05.2019
Chimpanzees Catch and Eat Crabs
Chimpanzees Catch and Eat Crabs
Chimpanzees have a mainly vegetarian diet, but do occasionally eat meat. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown for the first time that chimpanzees also eat crabs. In the rainforest of Guinea, the researchers observed how chimpanzees regularly fish for crabs. “Our study is the first evidence showing that non-human apes regularly catch and eat aquatic fauna,” says Kathelijne Koops, researcher at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Zurich.

Physics - Mathematics - 28.05.2019
Researchers crack an enduring physics enigma
Researchers crack an enduring physics enigma
Researchers from EPFL have found the mechanism that lies behind a mysterious physics phenomenon in fluid mechanics: the fact that turbulence in fluids spontaneously self-organizes into parallel patterns of oblique turbulent bands - an example of order emerging spontaneously from chaos. In so doing, they solved a problem that had stumped generations of physicists.

Environment - 28.05.2019
Domino Effect of Species Extinctions Also Damages Biodiversity
Domino Effect of Species Extinctions Also Damages Biodiversity
The mutual dependencies of many plant species and their pollinators mean that the negative effects of climate change are exacerbated. As UZH researchers show, the total number of species threatened with extinction is therefore considerably higher than predicted in previous models. Global climate change is threatening biodiversity.

Life Sciences - Music - 27.05.2019
Music helps to build the brains of very premature babies
Music helps to build the brains of very premature babies
Researchers from UNIGE and HUG demonstrate how music specially composed for premature infants strengthens the development of their brain networks and could limit the neurodevelopmental delays that often affect these children.    In Switzerland, as in most industrialized countries, nearly 1% of children are born "very prematurely", i.e. before the 32nd week of pregnancy, which represents about 800 children yearly.

Physics - 27.05.2019
A new theory of thermal conductivity
A new theory of thermal conductivity
Researchers have developed a new theory for heat conduction that can finally describe and predict the thermal conductivity of any insulating material. This new formulation will let scientists make accurate predictions of thermal conductivity in a range of materials for critical engineering applications - from electronics to lasers to waste-heat recovery.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 27.05.2019
Altered Brain Activity in Antisocial Teenagers
Teenage girls with problematic social behavior display reduced brain activity and weaker connectivity between the brain regions implicated in emotion regulation. The findings of an international study carried out by researchers from the University of Zurich and others now offer a neurobiological explanation for the difficulties some girls have in controlling their emotions, and provide indications for possible therapy approaches.

Materials Science - Physics - 23.05.2019
Producing electricity at estuaries using light and osmosis
Producing electricity at estuaries using light and osmosis
Researchers at EPFL are working on a technology to exploit osmotic energy - a source of power that's naturally available at estuaries, where fresh water comes into contact with seawater. In a laboratory experiment, the team reproduced the real-world conditions that occur where rivers meet the sea (pH and salt concentration) and showed that, by shining light on a system comprising salt, water and a membrane three atoms thick, it was possible to optimize electricity production.

Media - 23.05.2019
Information and language in news impact prejudice against minorities
Researchers at the Institute of Psychology show how news about immigrants and language describing immigrants shape prejudice against immigrants and other social minorities, as part of the project «Immigrants in the Media». For instance, nouns used for describing the ethnicity of immigrants enhance prejudice against immigrants more than adjectives.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 23.05.2019
Source of new CFC emissions discovered
Source of new CFC emissions discovered
Since 2013, annual emissions of the banned chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 have increased by around 7,000 metric tons from eastern China, according to a new study by an international team of scientists including Empa researchers, published in «Nature» today. The new discovery follows a finding in 2018 that emissions of this very important ozone-depleting substance had increased.

Life Sciences - 22.05.2019
A role for gene activators in 3D nuclear organization
A role for gene activators in 3D nuclear organization
From yeast to man, the genome is partitioned into subnuclear compartments, with active euchromatin spatially separated from silent heterochromatin, which is often found at the nuclear periphery. This spatial distribution correlates with gene expression and contributes to cell-type integrity. In a study published in Nature, the Gasser group showed that the sequestration of a strong gene activator, CBP/p300, regulates the spatial organization of inactive domains.

Physics - 22.05.2019
The geometry of an electron determined for the first time
The geometry of an electron determined for the first time
Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer.

Health - Chemistry - 22.05.2019
Shedding light on cancer metabolism in real-time with bioluminescence
Shedding light on cancer metabolism in real-time with bioluminescence
Cancerous tumors can be made to bioluminesce, like fireflies, according to the level of their glucose uptake, giving rise to a technique for quantifying metabolite absorption. The firefly imaging technique for sugar can be translated from cancer to many other metabolic diseases. EPFL scientists have invented a new way to quantify - in real-time - glucose metabolism of cancerous tumors by making them bioluminesce.

Health - Social Sciences - 22.05.2019
Poor semen quality in Switzerland
Poor semen quality in Switzerland
Researchers at UNIGE have carried out the first nationwide study on semen quality of young Swiss men. And their verdict? Only 38% of men have semen parameter values above the norms set by World Health Organization for fertile men. Over the last fifty years, a marked decrease in sperm count has been observed in the Western World.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.05.2019
The insulin under the influence of light
The insulin under the influence of light
By understanding how day-night alternation affects the effect of insulin in tissues, researchers at UNIGE are highlighting the role of circadian rhythms in diabetes. The disruption of our internal clocks seems to play a significant role in the explosion of metabolic diseases observed in recent decades, and particularly of diabetes.

Pharmacology - Health - 21.05.2019
Using 3D to test personalised treatments in five days
Using 3D to test personalised treatments in five days
UNIGE researchers have developed a cell co-culture platform that can reproduce a patient's tumour in 3D and test the best treatment combinations for its specific case in just five days. Why doesn't the same treatment work in the same way for every patient? How can a drug's performance be optimised without causing side effects due to an excessive dosage? In an attempt to answer these questions, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have devised a cell co-culture platform that reproduces a patient's tumour structure in 3D.

Health - Life Sciences - 20.05.2019
A new non-invasive therapy for people with paraplegia
A new non-invasive therapy for people with paraplegia
Researchers from the Alberto Santos Dumont Association for Research Support (AASDAP) in Brazil, in collaboration with EPFL, have developed a non-invasive strategy that combines functional electrostimulation and a brain-machine interface to help people with paraplegia walk again. This rehabilitation approach was tested on two patients, who showed an improvement in their motor skills and a partial neurological recovery.

Health - 17.05.2019
New Findings on Malaria Vaccine
New Findings on Malaria Vaccine
Protection by the malaria vaccine RTS,S is not only a matter of antibody quantity but also of quality. These are the findings of a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) in collaboration with Swiss TPH and other partners. The research show for the first time that the higher the avidity of antibodies induced by the RTS,S vaccine, the greater the protection.

Life Sciences - 16.05.2019
The insular cortex processes pain and drives learning from pain
The insular cortex processes pain and drives learning from pain
Neuroscientists at EPFL have discovered an area of the brain, the insular cortex, that processes painful experiences and thereby drives learning from aversive events. Acute pain, e.g. hitting your leg against a sharp object, causes an abrupt, unpleasant feeling. In this way, we learn from painful experiences to avoid future harmful situations.